Sri bhagavan uvacha
Ye sastra-vidhim utsrjya yajante sraddhayanvitah
Tesam nistha tu ka Krushna sattvam aho rajas tamah
Arjun said “Krinshna, the person who ignores the procedure laid down in shaslras but is full of devotion and worships dewigods; how will you term his worship – Satviki, Rajasi or Tamasi?
Sri bhagavan uvacha
Tri-vidha bhavati sraddha dehinam sa svabhava-ja
Sattviki rajast caiva tamasi cheti tam srnu
Lord Krishna replied, “Devotion that arises out of one’s own nature and is devoid of procedural attributes, as mentioned in shastras can be any one of the three types – Salviki, Rajasi or Tomasi. I shall explain to you these.
Sattvanurupa sarvasya sraddha bhavati bharata
Sraddhamayo yam puruso yo yach chraddhah as eva sah
Bharat (Arjun) devotion of a person depends on his/her intrinsic nature. A devotional person is as good or bad as is his devotion.
Yajante sattvika devan yaksa-raksamsi rajasah
Pretan bhuta-ganams chanye yajante tamasa janah
Satvik men worship Devas gods, Rajas worship demi-gods or demons. And Tamas men worship ghosts and evil spirits.
Asastra vihitam ghoram tapyante ye tapo janah
The person who ignores the holy scripture; devises his own imaginary form of tapa. He is full of attachment, desire and pride of his own power.
Karsayantah sarira-stham bhuta-gramam achetasah
Mam chaivantah sarira-stham tan viddhy asura-nischayan
Those who slight their body and the soul which in fact is my own extension, you must consider them to bear demonish nature.
Aharastvapi sarvasya tri-vidho bhavati priyah
Yajnas tapas tatha danam tesam bhedam imam srnu
Everyone enjoys such food as is compatible with his/her nature. Likewise yajna, donations and devotional worship are also of three types each. I shall explain to you the different attributes of all these.
Rasyah snigdhah sthird hrdya aharah sattvika-priyah
The foods which are stable, promote health, intellect, cheer and are juicy and buttery, such foods are loved by Satvik people.
Ahara rajasasyesta duhkha-sokamaya-pradah
Food, which are Bitter, Sour, Salty, very hot that cause burning sensation and are responsible for anxiety, sorrow and decease are liked by Rajasi people.
Yata-yamam gata-rasam puti paryusitam cha yat
Ucchistam api chamedhyam bhojanam tamasa-priyam
And meals which are halfcocked, dry, emits foul odoar and are impure; such meals are preferred by Tamas people.
Aphalakanksibhir yajno vidhi-drsto ya ijyate
Yastavyam eveti manah samadhaya sa sattvikah
Yajna which is performed as per procedure and considering that it is one’s duty to perform yajna should be considered as Satvik Yajna.
Abhisandhaya tu phalam dambhartham api chaiva yat
Ijyate bharata-srestha tam yajnam viddhi rajasam
But, yajna which is performed to show off with arrogance and desiring the results should be considered as Rajasi Yajna.
Vidhi-hinam asrstannam mantra-hinam adakshinam
Sraddha-virahitam yajnam tamasam parichaksate
And ignoring all holy procedures without donating food, without chanting mantras and devoid of devotion or dakshina; such a yajna is of tamas category.
Deva-dvija-guru-prajna-pujanam saucham arjavam
Brahma-charyam ahimsa cha sariram tapa uchyate
Worshiping gods, Brahmins, guru and saints of wisdom, Purity, simplicity avoidance of sex and violence, this is known as body – related ‘tapa’.
Anudvega-karam vakyam satyam priya-hitam cha yat
Svadhyayabhyasanam chaiva vanmayam tapa uchyate
Speech that does not hurt and is lovable and is also appropriate and helpful, reading scripture and repeating God’s name; these known as the tapa of speech.
Manah-prasadah saumyatvam maunam atma-vinigrahah
Bhava-samsuddhir ity etat tapo manasam uchyate
Delightful mind, peaceful nature and one inclined to remember God, and purity of thoughts and mental processes; these refer to mind related ‘tapa’.
Sraddhaya paraya taptam tapas tat tri-vidham naraih
Aphalakanksibhir yuktaih sattvikam parichaksate
People practicing ‘yoga’ who do not desire results but carry out the aforesaid three kinds of tapa; their tapa is known as satvik tapa.
Satkara-mana-pujartham tapo dambhena chaiva yat
Kriyate tad iha proktam rajasam chalam adhruvam
But ‘tapa’ which is carried out for honour, pride, worship or for any other selfish motive and the tapa which is of transitory results is known as Rajas tapa.
Mudha-grahenatmanah yat pidaya kriyate tapah
Parasyotsadanartham va tat tamasam udahrtam
And tapa which is performed foolishly and is hurting to the mind, body, speech and aims at inconvenience or hurting others is known as tamas tapa.
Datavyam iti yad danam diyate nupakarine
Dese kale cha patre cha tad danam sattvikam smrtam
Donation is one’s duty and as such any donation that is given without expectation and feeling of generosity that you are helping others is called satvik donation.
Yat tu pratyupakarartham phalam uddisya va punah
Diyate cha pariklistam tad danam rajasam smrtam
But the donation which is made with consideration and motive of pride, honour and desire of heaven, such a donation should be considered ‘Rajas’.
Adesa-kale yad danam apatrebhyas cha diyate
Asatkrtam avajnatam tat tamasam udahrtam
And the donation which is made without respect or with disdain and is given to unworthy people or for unworthy causes is known as tamas donation.
Om-tat-sad iti nirdeso brahmanas tri-vidhah smrtah
Brahmanas tena vedas cha yajnas cha vihitah pura
‘Om’, ‘tata’, ‘sata’, these three words donote the names of the omnipresent, ‘Brahma’. Brahma alone has created Brahmins, Vedas and yajna etc.
Tasmad om ity udahrtya yajna-dana-tapah-kriyah
Pravartante vidhanoktah satatam brahma-vadinam
Therefore all worthy actions like yajna donation or tapa are initiated by righteous people by pronouncing ‘Om’. ‘Om’ is always chanted before beginning yajna, tapa or at the time of donation.
Tad ity anabhisandhaya phalam yajna-tapah-kriyah
Dana-kriyas cha vividhah kriyante moksa-kanksibhih
Tata word denotes the name of the Almighty to whom every thing belongs. Therefore selfless righteous people perform holy duties like yajna, tapa and donation while chanting tata.
Sad-bhave sadhu-bhave cha sad ity etat prayujyate
Prasaste karmani tatha ach-chabdah partha yujyate
Sata, the name of God is repeated with devotion and purity and is also use while performing deserving duties.
Yajne tapasi dane cha sthitih sad iti chochyate
Karma chaiva tad-arthiyam sad ity evabhidhiyate
The intent behind yajna, tapa and the donation is also known as Sata, and the duties carried out for the Almighty is also known as Sata.
Asraddhaya hutam dattam tapas taptam krtam cha yat
Asad ity uchyate partha na cha tat pretya no iha
Arjun any yajna, tapa or donation if performed without devotion and respect and also other Loorthy actions if these are devoid of devotion are all known as ‘Asata’. Therefore neither these are useful in this life nor the next.