Sannyasasya mahabaho tattvam icchami veditum
Tyagasya cha hrsikesa prthak kesinisudana
Arjun said , to lord Krishna “Mahabaho, omnipresent, Vasudev, I want to understand the difference between sanyas and Tyag (remmciation).
Sri bhagavan uvacha
Kamyanam karmanam nyasam sannyasam kavayo viduh
Sarva-karma-phala-tyagam prahus tyagam vichaksanah
Shri Bhagwan said, “Many a scholars consider giving up all such worth actione which are performed with desire to acquire worldly gifts as ‘Sanyas’. But other though ful ones consider giving up all desire to aquire any thing in return for the worthy action is true Tyag.
Tyajyam dosavad ity eke karma prahur manisinah
Yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam iti chapare
Many scholars consider that all acions are blemished with one or he other fault and therefore should be given up. But there are others who say that yajna, donation and tapa are such duties of men which should never be given up.
Nischayam srnu me tatra tyage Bharata-sattama
Tyago hi purusa-vyaghra tri-vidhah samprakirtitah
Arjun, between Sanyas and Tyag first you try to understand my views on tyag. Tyag indeed is of three categovies i.e. Satvik, Rajas and Tamas.
Yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam karyam eva tat
Yajno danam tapas chaiva pavanani manisinam
Yajna, donation and tapa, these actions should never be given up. Instead, these must always be performed because these are the actions which truly purify wise people.
Etany api tu karmani sangam tyaktva phalani cha
Kartavyaniti me partha nischitam matam uttamam
Therefore Parth (Arjun) these actions i.e. Yajna, donation and tapa and all other worthy actions and duties must be performed without attachment and without desiring the fruit of the labour.
Niyatasya tu sannyasah karmano nopapadyate
Mohat tasya parityagas tamasah parikirtitah
Unworthy actions must be abandoned altogether. But the duty of man and must not be given up. If must be performed. But attachment and expectation of the result must be given up. Tyag or known as Tamas ‘tyag’.
Duhkham ity eva yat karma kaya-klesa-bhayat tyajet
Sa krtva rajasam tyagam naiva tyaga-phalam labhet
All actions are full of misery and due to fear of difficulties involved in performance of one’s own duty is known as ‘Rajas’ ‘tyag’. This kind of tyag does not bring about any benefit.
Karyam ity eva yat karma niyatam kriyate rjuna
Sangam tyaktva phalam chaiva sa tyagah sattviko matah
The actions which are prescribed by the shastras (holy scriptures) to a person, if performed without attachment and without expectation of any results are to be considered as true ‘Satvik’ tyag.
Na dvesty akusalam karma kusale nanusajjate
Tyagi sattva-samavisto medhavi chinna-samsayah
The person who does not despise actions as his duty even if it is not enviable and doesnot get attached to the great and likeable actions if the same fall under his duty is, in fact, a true tyagi (one who renunciates).
Na hi deha-bhrta sakyam tyaktum karmany asesatah
Yas tu karma-phala-tyagi sa tyagity abhidhiyate
Because it is not possible for anyone to altogether in reality give up all body related actions. Therefore the person who gives up the fruit of his actions only must be considered as a renunciator.
Anistam istam misram cha tri-vidham karmanah phalam
Bhavaty atyaginam pretya na tu sannyasinam kvachit
The person who does not renunciate but desires the results of his actions does get good or had or mixed result of his action after his death. But the person who renunciates the fruits of his action does not have to suffer any consequence of his actions at anytime at all.
Panchaitani maha-baho karanani nibodha me
Sankhye krtante proktani siddhaye sarva-karmanam
Mahabaho (Opraveman) the completion of all action, five possible reasons have been explained in ‘Sankhya Shastra’. I shall explain to you these in detail. You must carefully understand.
Adhisthanam tatha karta karanam cha prthag-vidham
Vividhas cha prthak chesta daivam chaivatra panchamam
In the context at fulfillment of the duties, there are file rot of the origin of action. The place of action, the motive of action and the doer (who carries out the action) and the different implements – humanly organs senses etc. – with which the action is carried out and different kinds of effort for the action and the fifth one is “Devaya”?
Sarira-vanmanobhir yat karma prarabhate narah
Nyayyam va viparitam va panchaite tasya hetavah
Whatever action is performed by a person with mind, speech or body whether in accordance with the shastras or against the shastras the same action occurs due to all the aforesaid five reasons.
Tatraivam sati kartaram atmanam kevalam tu yah
Pasyaty akrta-buddhitvan na sa pasyati durmatih
Even then ordinary human beings, due to his impure wisdom consider the ‘pure soul’ alone is the doer of the action. Or in other words he consider that the soul is only responsible for the action. In fact such a man with foul wisdom does not understand, things correctly.
Yasya nahankrto bhavo buddhir yasya na lipyate
Hatvapi sa imal lokan na hanti na nibadhyate
The person who is free from the feeling that ‘I am the doer’ and whose intellect does not it attached or afflicted by the worldly things; such a person even if he kills all living beings because neither he is a killer no does he gets afflicted by any sin.
Jnanam jneyam parijnata tri-vidha karma-codana
Karanam karma karteti tri-vidhah karma sangrahah
The person who understands, the faculty of understanding and the content of understanding; these are three motivating fetors of any action. The doer the implements with which the action is performed and the actual action; these are three types of constituents of the action.
Jnanam karma cha karta cha tridhaiva guna-bhedatah Prochyate guna-sankhyane yathavach chrnu tany api
In the scriptures relating to description of ‘Gunas’, there are three different categories each of ‘Karta’ (Doer), ‘Karma’ (action) or Gyan (wisdom). I shall explain these to you, so listen carefully.
Sarva-bhutesu yenaikam bhavam avyayam iksate
Avibhaktam vibhaktesu taj jnanam viddhi sattvikam
The wisdom which enables one to identify the omnipresent indivisible almighty among all beings; such a wisdom is ‘satwic’ wisdom.
Prthaktvena tu yaj jnanam nana-bhavan-prthage-vidhan
Vetti sarvesu bhutesu taj jnanam viddhi rajasam
But the wisdom which gives different identification to all beings and makes one realise different existence of these beings should be considered as ‘Rajas’ wisdom.
Yat tu krtsnavad ekasmin karye saktam ahaitukam
Atattvarthavad alpam cha tat tamasam udahrtam
On the other hand, the wisdom which doesnot give clear perceptions and is altogether attached to the body; such a confused wisdom should be considered as ‘tamas’.
Niyatam sanga-rahitam araga-dvesatah krtam
Aphala-prepsuna karma yat tat sattvikam uchyate
The action which is carried out according to the scriptures and is free from the conceit or egotism and is carried out without desiring the fruit of action and is also free from attachment, is called Satvik action.
Yat tu kamepsuna karma sahankarena va punah
Kriyate bahulayasam tad rajasam udahrtam
But the action which involves enormous efforts and is performed by those who seek worldly pleasures or those full of arrogance is called ‘Rajas’ karma (action)
Anubandham ksayam himsam anapeksya cha paurusam
Mohad arabhyate karma yat tat tamasam uchyate
But the action which is performed without thinking about the result, loss or violence or the ability and is carried out of ignorance is called ‘tamas’ karma (action).
Mukta-sango nahamvadi dhrty-utsaha-samanvitah Siddhy-asiddhyor nirvikarah karta sattvika uchyate
The doer or ‘Karta’ is unattached, and is not arrogant, but is full of patience and enthusiasm at the same time who is not affected by the success or failure of the action i.e. neither becomes happy on success nor is sad due to failure is called ‘Satvik’ karta (doer)
Ragi karma-phala-prepsur lubdho himsatmako suchih
Harsa-sokanvitah karta rajasah parikirtitah
The doer (karta) who remains attached and is desirous of the fruits of the action others and is either very sad or very happy is known as ‘rajas’ karta (doer).
Ayuktah prakrtah stabdhah satho naiskrtiko lasah
Visadi dirgha-sutri cha karta tamasa uchyate
But the doer who is unworthy uneducated, arrogant, wicked, lazy and a procastrinator is called ‘tamas’ karta (doer)
Buddher bhedam dhrtes chaiva gunatas tri-vidham srnu
Prochyamanam asesena prthaktvena dhananjaya
Besides, Arjun, now I shall explain to you three categories each of, wisdom / intellect and ‘dhriti’—- steadfastness of mind in detail.
Pravrttim cha nivrttim cha karyakarye bhayabhaye
Bandham moksam cha ya vetti buddhih sa partha sattviki
Parth the intellect which recognised and understand pravritimarg (a person who conducts himself for the benefit of the society just like Raja Janak even living the regular worldly life is know to follow pravritimarg) and nivritimarg (giving up the worldly attachment and remaining one with the Almighty and detaching oneself completely from the worldly life is known as nivritimarg) and duty and forbidden actions, fear and fearlessness and attachment and salvation is known as satviki intellect
Yaya dharmam adharmam cha karyam chakaryam eva cha
Ayathavat prajanati buddhih sa partha rajasi
Parth, the intellect which fails to distinguish between duty and forbidden action, religion and atheism is known to be ‘Rajas’ intellect.
Adharmam dharmam iti ya manyate tamasavrta
Sarvarthan viparitams cha buddhih sa partha tamasi
And, Arjun the intellect which considers atheism as religion and likewise follows all wrong paths should be considered as tamas intellect.
Dhrtya yaya dharayate manah pranendriya-kriyah
Yogenavyabhicharinya dhrtih sa partha sattviki
Prithaputra (son of Pritha) anyone’s conviction which is the result of pure meditation and is free from all worldly attachment is called satvik conviction
Yaya tu dharma-kamarthan dhrtya dharayate rjuna
Prasangena phalakanksi dhrtih sa partha rajasi
And the person who desires the fruits of his efforts and develops a conviction to carry out religious economic and physical activity is Rajsi conviction.
Yaya svapnam bhayam sokam visadam madam eva cha
Na vimunchati durmedha dhrtih sa partha tamasi
But the person with an impure (dusht) mind due to his foul conviction clings to laziness, worry, fear and sorrow; his conviction is ‘Tamas’
Sukham tv idanim tri-vidham srnu me bharatarsabha
Abhyasad ramate yatra duhkhantam cha nigacchati
Arjun, now, I shall describe to you three variants of happiness. The happiness which is attained through meditation, devotional songs, and help and assistant to others is Satvik happiness.
Yat tad agre visam iva pariname mrtopamam
Tat sukham sattvikam proktam atma-buddhi-prasada-jam
Such a happiness in the beginning appears troublesome difficult to accept as if it were poison; but the result if which is like Amrit (the heavenly rector) is called Satvik happiness.
Visayendriya-samyogad yat tad agre mrtopamam
Pariname visam iva tat sukham rajasam smrtam
But happiness which is derived due to physical pleasures though appears like nectar during enjoyment but in the end is like a poison; such happiness is known to be ‘Rajasi’
Yad agre chanubandhe cha sukham mohanam atmanah
Nidralasya-pramadottham tat tamasam udahrtam
But the happiness which is derived due to laziness, inaction, sleep and other such activities that promote delusion of the pure mind is known as ‘Tamsi’ happiness.
Na tad asti prthivyam va divi devesu va punah
Sattvam prakrti-jair muktam yad ebhih syat tribhir gunaih
And Arjun, in this world or the heaven or even among demigods; there is not one being who is not affected by these three gunas attributes i.e. Satvik Rajas or tamas.
Brahmana-ksatriya-visam sudranam cha parantapa Karmani pravibhaktani svabhava-prabhavair gunaih
Therefore all the activities of Brahmins, Kshtriyas, Vaishy as and Sudras are also divided into three different categories according their gunas.
Samo damas tapah saucam ksantir arjavam eva cha
Jnanam vijnanam astikyam brahma-karma svabhava-jam
Control of mind and body, purity within and without, accepting difficulties on account of religion, the ability to pardon others and simplicity of mind, senses and body those are natural activities of a Brahmin.
Sauryam tejo dhrtir daksyam yuddhe chapy apalayanam
Danam isvara-bhavas cha ksatram karma svabhava-jam
Valour, spleen dour, patience, courage and being clever and qualities of leadership, will and ability to donate and the ability to rule with consideration to every ones wellness these are all natural qualities or activities of Kshtriyas.
Krsi-goraksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava-jam
Paricharyatmakam karma sudrasyapi svabhava-jam
And agriculture, cattle raising, and honest business these are natural activities of Vaishayas. And serving others are the natural activities of sudres.
Sve sve karmany abhiratah samsiddhim labhate narah
Svakarma-niratah siddhim yatha vindati tach chrnu
In this way a person following his natural duty undoubtedly attains realisation to you the procedure by which following his own duty realises Almighty.
Yatah pravrttir bhutanam yena sarvam idam tatam
Svakarmana tam abhyarchya siddhim vindati manavah
Arjun, the Almighty who has created all beings, when worshipped through devotionally carrying out one’s own natural duties – is a means to achieve paramsidhi.
Sreyan sva-dharmo vigunah para-dharmat svanusthitat
Svabhava-niyatam karma kurvan napnoti kilbisam
Therefore it is better to follow one’s own activity if even when devoid of all niceties is than to follow somebody else’s duty / activity.
Saha-jam karma Kaunteya sa-dosam api na tyajet
Sarvarambha hi dosena dhumenagnir ivavrtah
Therefore, Arjune, one should not give up one’s own natural duty even if it reflects blemishes. In fact all activities do carry with them some blemishes like smoke with fire.
Asakta-buddhih sarvatra jitatma vigata-sprhah
Naiskarmya-siddhim paramam sannyasenadhigacchati
Besides, Arjun, a person who is unattached and has control over his mind body and senses can realise god through Sankhyayog and through detachment.
Siddhim prapto yatha brahma tathapnoti nibodha me
Samasenaiva kaunteya nistha jnanasya ya para
Therefore Kuntiputra (son of Kunti) I explain to you how practitioner of sankhya yoga realises Brahman and I shall in short also explain the definition of ‘Prime Truth’
Buddhya visuddhaya yukto dhrtyatmanam niyamya cha
Sabdadin visayams tyaktva raga-dvesau vyudasya cha
Vivikta-sevi laghv-asi yata-vak-kaya-manasah
Dhyana-yoga-paro nityam vairagyam samupasritah
Arjun, the person with a pure mind peace loving and quiet and who eats only as much as is necessary and who has fall control over his mind speech and body. And who has adopted detachment, taken to meditation and with his satvik conviction controlling his mind fully should destroy the elements of envy, jealously and attachment within him.
Ahankaram balam darpam kamam krodham parigraham
Vimuchya nirmamah santo brahma-bhuyaya kalpate
Further he gets rid of pride, arrogance, bust, anger and desire to accumulate wordily possessions; and with inner and outer peace; he becomes worthy of self realisation and prime siddhi.
Brahma-bhutah prasannatma na sochati na kanksati
Samah sarvesu bhutesu mad-bhaktim labhate param
He realises the Almighty and assumes a state where neither he laments for any lost object nor desire any worldly object. Instead having uniform attitude towards all beings and things becomes deeply unbolted in devotion toward, me.
Bhaktya man abhijanati yavan yas chasmi tattvatah
Tato mam tattvato jnatva visate tad-anantaram
It is only ;with pure devotion that my devotee is able to comprehend what I am and my influence and in fact becomes one with my limitless form. Thereafter in his eyes there remains nothing else but Almighty.
Sarva-karmany api sada kurvano mad-vyapasrayah
Mat-prasadad avapnoti sasvatam padam avyayam
The selfless yogi who carries on with his duty without expectation undoubtedly realises ME the indestructible omnipresent and attains the position of prime importance with my grace.
Chetasa sarva-karmani mayi sannyasya mat-parah
Buddhi-yogam upasritya macchittah satatam bhava
Therefore, Arjun, you dedicate all your efforts from the core of your heart to ME. Get involved in ME practicing selfless performance of your duties that you become fully conscious of my presence.
Mach-chittah sarva-durgani mat-prasadat tarisyasi
Atha chet tvam ahankaran na srosyasi vinanksyasi
In this manner if you realise me, I shall grant you freedom from the cycle of birth and death and all other such difficulties. However if out of your arrogance, you choose not to pay need to my words, you will loose your track of glory. In fact you will be destroyed.
Yad ahankaram asritya na yotsya iti manyase
Mithyaisa vyavasayas te prakrtis tvam niyoksyati
And if you consider that you may decide not to fight it is only your foolish thought. Your natural attributes of being a Kshtriya will automatically force you to fight.
Svabhava-jena Kaunteya nibaddhah svena karmana
Kartum necchasi yan mohat karisyasy avaso pi tat
Arjun, the duty which you don’t want to perform because of your attachment to your relatives, you will surely carry out because of your in built inherent nature.
Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese rjuna tisthati
Bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya
Because, Arjun, the Omnipresent Almighty through his unique Maya makes all beings wander according to their own actions. And the Almighty is always present in their hearts.
Tam eva saranam gaccha sarva-bhavena bharata
Tat prasadat param santim sthanam prapsyasi sasvatam
There fore Bharat (another name for Arjun) submit yourself to the almighty giving up all your pride, fear, shame and attachment. You will certainly be at peace with His Grace.
Iti te jnanam akhyatam guhyad guhyataram maya
Vimrsyaitad asesena yathecchasi tatha kuru
In fact I have explained to you most secret knowledge. Now you must give it all your serious thought. And thereafter decide whatever you want to do according to your own desire.
Sarva-guhyatamam bhuyah srnu me paramam vachah
isto si me drdham iti tato vaksyami te hitam
Haring said this all and not getting any reply from Arjun, the Lord Almighty once again said . I shall once again repeat secret knowledge of all secrets for your benefit because you are very dear to me.
Manmana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru
Mam evaisyasi satyam te pratijane priyo si me
Arjun, you must develop full faith in Me the Almighty and worship me without any selfish motive. Consider constantly all my faculties, generosity. Kindheartedness, pleasant nature, seriousness and sweetness. These will help you to fix your mind in Me and eventually you will become a part and parcel of my own SELF.
Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja
Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami ma suchah
Therefore give up your dependence on various scriptures, principles and come to my grace. I shall rid you of all your blemishes, faults and sins.
Idam te natapaskaya nabhaktaya kadachana
Na chasusrusave vachyam na cha mam yo bhyasuyati
Whatever secret knowledge message of Gita – I have imparted to you for your benefit; you should never share with a person who is not keen to acquire or these who do not belief in God the Almighty. But devotees who desire to know are worthy of sharing this secret knowledge; so you can explain the same to those devotees.
Ya idam paramam guhyam mad-bhaktesv abhidhasyati
Bhaktim mayi param krtva mam evaisyaty asamsayah
Because whoever, out of devotion and duty towards ME, will share this deep knowledge of Gila without selfish motive and respectfully; he will undoubted merge with ME the Almighty.
Na cha tasman manusyesu kaschin me priya-krttamah
Bhavita na cha me tasmad anyah priyataro bhuvi
There is no one more dear to me than the persons who respectfully propagates my message, nor will there be anyone in future.
Adhyesyate cha ya imam dharmyam samvadam avayoh
Jnana-yajnena tenaham istah syam iti me matih
And Arjun whoever will read our this discussion respectfully or study if daily will be, in fact, performing my ‘gyan yojna’ worship which I will always accept.
Sraddhavan anasuyas cha srnuyad api yo narah
So pi muktah subhal likan prapnuyat punya-karmanam
Besides the one who is free from faults and will just listen to these wise words of knowledge respectfully will be rid of all sins.
Kacchid etach chrutam partha tvayaikagrena chetasa
Kacchid ajnana-sammohah pranastas te dhananjaya
Explaining the importance of the message of Gita in this manwher to Arjun, Lord Krishna asked Parth have you listened to my talk carefully? And Dhananjay has your will affection born out of ignorance vanished?
Nasto mohah smrtir labdha tvat prasadan mayachyuta
Sthito smi gata-sandehah karisye vachanam tava
When Lord Almighty put these questions to Arjun, the latter replied, Achyut (____________) with your grace all my vile affections are completely destroyed. All my doubts are now removed. Therefore, now, I shall obey your orders.
Ity aham vasudevasya parthasya cha mahatmanah
Samvadam imam asrausam adbhutam roma-harsanam
Thereafter Sanjay said to Dhritrashtra, Rajan, I have listened in detail this wonderful deep dialogue between Lord Vasudev and noble Arjun.
Vyasa-prasadach chrutavan etad guhyam aham param
Yogam yogesvarat krsnat saksat kathayatah svayam
By grace of Vyas ji who granted me devine sight with which I could see the Lord Krishna himself imparting the entire deep and secret knowledge.
Rajan samsmrtya samsmrtya samvadam imam adbhutam
Kesavarjunayoh punyam hrsyami cha muhur muhuh
Rajan, I repeatedly remember in my mind the unique, mysterious and benevolent dialogue and joy runs through my mind and body
Tach cha samsmrtya samsmrtya rupam atyadbhutam hareh
Vismayo me mahan Rajan hrsyami cha punah punah
And Rajan recalling the wonderful form of Shri Hari, Lord Krishna I am becoming overjoyed.
Yatra yogesvarah Krushno yatra partho dhanur-dharah
Tatra srir vijayo bhutir dhruva nitir matir mama
Rajan, what else can I describe? But I must say the side where the great Lord Almighty Shri Krishna and (gandivadhnushdhari) Arjun are there the final victory belongs to them.