Teachings from Bhagwad Gita.

My apologies for being offline quite for some time. The problem with the site has been resolved.

A few years ago I had read one book called modern saints and mystics by Major General A. N. Sharma (Retd.) one of the saints that he wrote about a Swami Sevadasji. He was listening to Gita and trying to understand Gita Discourses right since his childhood. He would give following advice to the people who contacted him for guidance.

Be straight at all times-no deception, no pride, no vanity, no temper, no conceit, no crookedness and surrender to Him at all times. This will result in humility and loss of Ego bringing the sincere devotee in front of the Lord.

I consider that this is a great message for us, commoners, and would help us in our lives immensely.

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What we learn from Bhagwad Gita Chapter – 5

bhagavad-Gita-and-krishna-arjunaListening to lord Krishna, Arjun is confused about ‘Karam Yog’ and ‘Karam Sanyas’. Krishna explains that the Karam Sanyas should not be considered as if you are renouncing all actions. The important fact which has to be kept in mind is that one should not have any jealousy or even enmity with any other human beings. Nor there should be any expectations. It means that you should not expect anything in return from the help that you may have rendered to any fellow human beings.

In Chapter 4 emphasis was on removing the attachments. Here, Shri Krishna says don’t expect any benefit in return from the person that you had helped. In case that you have developed this attitude; then even while performing your duties you can be considered practicing ‘Karam Sanyas.’ However it should never be considered as renouncement of performing your duty.

Both these practices that is Karam Sanyas and Karma Yog provide you the same good results. People who cannot understand by deep application of mind get confused. But there should be no confusion in your mind.

It is only through Karam Yog that you can eradicate your ego. When your performing your duty or the actions that you have to carry out from time to time you should consider that these actions are the just a position of different human attributes. These attributes are Satva Gunna, Rajo gunna, and Tamo guna. So the person who has controlled all his physical senses and realized on a soul will never have any sufferings due to the performance of his/her actions. Even though some of the actions may be the cause of the physical or mental hurt to others. Here Shri Krishna is probably referring to the opponents who may lose their lives in the battle.

Further, Shri Krishna says you should carry out your duty by dedicating everything to the all-mighty. When you do this and work without attachment; your soul will be purified and your mind will remain stable in the devotion of the all-mighty.

Thus a person who has a stable mind; who does not harbor any doubts; who is not overjoyed by receiving any fortune and who is not saddened by any misfortunes is the one who remains in total control of himself. No doubt such a person is most near to me. Further, he explains that during the lifetime, if one can control Kaam – that is the sensual desire and anger; he should be considered to have attained peace and tranquility. Towards the end of the chapter Shri Krishna also explains to Arjuna how to acquire an ‘Aasan’ which is helpful in bringing about control over one’s physical and mental self.

The learning that we can derive from this chapter can be summarized as below:

1)      Renouncing duty or action is not recommended at all. One should never be confused as Gyan yog, or Sankhya yog. You have only to renounce the attachment or expectation of the fruits. The results will come by itself and you should receive the same gracefully as ‘Prasad.’

2)      It is absolute necessary to renounce your ego. All the problems are caused by ‘aham’ or Ego. These interfere in the performance of your duty. These also interfere in building up of relationships with the other human being.

3)      All the physical actions are the result of just a position or intermingling of the three main human attributes. These are called Satva Gun, Raja Gun, Tamo Gun. Keeping these Gunas in mind at all times can help achieve the objective of renouncing one’s ego.

Karam Yogi’s of the Modern Era:

132143242321782Bhagat SinghMahatma Gandhi

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What we learn from Bhagwad Gita Chapter – 4

Continuing the dialog, Krishna explains to Arjun that whereas he remembers all the previous births; Arjun does not know about the same cycle of Death and Birth which continues and is endless.

He stresses the need for carrying out one’s duty without expecting the fruit of the work done by the individual. Often this is misunderstood. It is never that your efforts go waste. When you are performing your duty, the same is for a specific objective. Krishna advises that one should not be too concerned about the achievement of the objective. When you are performing a job you should be totally involved in your actions. You completely focus in the performance of your duty to ensure that you do it very well. It is not that you don’t have any right for the results. The emphasis is that in expectation of the results, your concern about the results will not enable you to focus whole-heartedly on your performance.

Further, Krisha explains that there are four classes of human beings created by him. These are Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. These classes are created so that all work required by the Society can be carried out smoothly. Further these classes represent the attributes and the respective duties.

In fact Aldous Huxley in his novel ‘Brave New World’ similarly, created four types of people Alpha, Beta, Gama and Delta. The objective is that each section is thoroughly conversant and totally devoted to bring about excellence in performance.

Since Arjun is a Warrior from the Kshatriya class, he needs to perform his Duty in the best possible manner. Inaction is to be despised. Inaction should never be considered as performance of one’s duty without continuously considering the results. What is known and ‘Nishkam Karma’ actually means the performance of one’s duty without strings attached.

Thereafter Shri Krishna also explains that some people who are Yogik practitioners perform Yajna in the form of their worship to God. Others carry out the Havan. Still others perform Yajna by practicing self-control – they are able to control their senses. They also control their living functions and they go into deep meditation, which is a higher form of hibernation. So all these performers of Yajnas are in fact carving their future with very bright light. But for a Kshatriya, his Yajna happens to be fighting the battle for a just cause. This also becomes an example for others to follow. So finally the message is that Arjun should become a true Karama Yogi. He should destroy his suspicions and emotions. He should carry out the battle with all his mind considering it is as his sacred duty, to be performed by him with all his dedication. The learning from this chapter is as follows:

1)      That we should considered life in continuity. We should not be scared of that. Anyway it has to come to everyone who is born on this earth. It is interesting to note that the great technical guru of our times, Steeve Jobs gave the same message in a slightly different from. He said that after he came to know about his cancer his started leaving every day of his life as if it was the last day. So he would try to do his ever best day on each day.

2)      Classes of the human beings are defined according to their attributes decided by their tendencies. Finally the work that you’re really carrying out puts you in a particular class and not necessarily the birth.

3)      Regarding the Yajna and welfare activities Krishna says the spreading of knowledge is the highest form of Yajna. However performing your particular duty with devotion and without any expectation or without attachment to the fruit of the work is also a form of a Yajna which is highly commended.


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What we learn from Bhagwad Gita Chapter – 3

33Lord Krishna explains to Arjun in this Chapter the importance of performing one’s duty. The description of ‘Stithpragya Purush’ and definition of ‘Sankhya Yoga’ created confusion in Arjun’s mind. He talks to Krishna about his confusion.

Krishna explains that avoiding work or not doing any work is never recommended for any human being. He emphasizes the importance is remaining calm and performing one’s duty. Since the performance of one’s duty may entail difficult situations, these are likely to create disturbances in the mind of a person concerned. With practice, you achieve a state of Stithpragya Purush you are able to keep your calm during turbulent situations.

He further explains it is not necessary that one has to work only for results. Remaining dispassionate and unattached one must necessarily perform one’s duty to justify his/her existence. He gives an example that though he does not have any need yet he continues to work for his creation – that is Society.

Shri Krishna tells Arjun that at this time it is his duty is to fight the battle. He is fighting for a just cause and therefore she should not give up the battle”.

A good human being not only works for himself but works for the welfare of the Society. A part of his earning must be distributed to the society. In the process the work he does will never have any ill-effect of his actions.

Great people leave an example for ordinary human beings to follow. One should never feel that the work done by him is created by him. The ‘Three Gunnas’ or attributes of human nature keep on interacting with the each other. Their constant juxtaposition produces respective actions. Under no circumstances can one remain in state of inaction. If you don’t perform physically, your mental state keeps on creating confusion in the mind. This must be avoided.

Thus we learned the following lessons which are the recommended by the Management Gurus of Modern Times:

1)      That you should never remain inactive in face of difficult situations. This could also mean that fear has no place in life.

2)      Maintaining calm while following a difficult path is important. The challenges of life sometimes may shake you up. But the strong and courageous are never shaken.

It has been repeatedly emphasized that the duty should be performed not only for selfish motive but for the good of society. In our country realizing its importance, the company law board has made it mandatory to give away 2% of Company Profits as a charity. We also have examples of Warren Buffett and Bill Gates who have decided to give away a major portion of their wealth in charity. Our own Azim Premji of Wipro as also pleased part portion of his wealth to charity.

warren buffet Bill Gates Azim Premji

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What we learn from Bhagwad Gita – Chapter 2


bhagavad-Gita-and-krishna-arjunaSanjay continued the commentary of happenings at the battle field to his King Dhritrashtra. Lord Krishna understood the reasons of Arjuna’s reluctance to fight. It was attachment with members of his family on both sides. It was also a fear that they may lose the battle. Krishna disapproved Arjuna’s behavior. Advising Arjun, Krishna asked him how was it that in his brave heart such fear and attachment resided. He told him to throw out these negative emotions and fight.

Arjuna then came up with another argument.  He said that on the other side he only found respected Seniors – his Grandfather, his Guru, and others. He would like to kill them even though there greedy and unreasonable yet they are the members of his own family.

Realizing Arjuna’s negative and cowardly conduct, Lord Krishna explained to him as under:

In a battle field we should have no regrets for the people who sacrifice their life. They indeed deserve our respect as they fight for a cause. In any case no one is immortal. Just as a person changes clothes, a soul also changes the body. The soul is immortal. He further said that the wise person is not disturbed by any challenging situations. Our soul is indestructible.  So there is nothing for which we should give up.

Further more as a warrior it was his duty to fight for the cause and not be scared of defeat. He was required to be firm in his decision. Indecision is the bane of life. As a determined soldier he should fight without worrying about whether they would win or lose. There should be no attachment with the result. He should conduct himself as a person of profound wisdom. Lord Krishna called such a person Stith Budhhi Purush.

Arjuna then asked Lord Krishna what are the qualities of Stith Budhhi Purush. To which Krishna replied: such a person is never unhappy facing defeating challenges. Nor does he become extremely happy on receiving great fortunes. Just as a tortoise secures all his vulnerable parts of the body inside its shell, such a Purush controls all his emotions.  For him day or night doesn’t matter – it has the same importance. Above all such a person achieves peace at the end.

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What we learn from Bhagwad Gita : Chapter 1

Bhagwad Gita

In the first chapter of Bhagwad  Gita, Sanjay described  to the blind king Dritrashtra the detailed events of the battle field.  Sanjay said that Duryodhana, looking at the armies on both the sides went to his teacher Dronacharya to apprise him of the situation & seek his guidance

Duryodhana who was the chief of the army and king himself seeks advice even at the battle field. Duryodhana was proud of their own strength, yet as per the tradition, even at the critical moment chose to consult his Guru : this shows how a teacher is respected as per Indian traditions.

Dronacharya named all the worriers who are ready to fight from his side.  This gave him a reasonable confidence. He expressed his confidence while saying, “Our strength is immeasurable.”  At the same time he felt that the Pandavas were protected by Bheema who was an invincible. He did not underestimate the opponents, but was proud of having Bheeshma Pitamah:  their great valiant Grandfather on their side. Thereafter the trumpets, the drums and the horns tore through the sky with their very loud roaring sound.

The loud and clear message is that even at the battle field you have to keep your mind cool. One must take an objective view of the situation. One must consult the professional guru. This is the management principle derived. Not easy, but necessary.

Thereafter, Sanjay described the army and strength of ‘Pandavas’.  Pandavas started blowing their counch shells (Shankas) very loudly. While this was happening, Arjuna requested Lord Krishna, his charioteer, to take the chariot to the middle of the battlefield between both armies. He wanted to look at both sides- all the valiant and brave warriors who had come to fight this monumental battle. Finding his own relations on both the sides Arjuna felt deeply disturbed. He explained to Lord Krishna that he did not feel like fighting his own cousins  and elders of the own family.  He felt that it was better to give away everything to Kauravas and to avoid the bloodshed of his own family members.

We learned from this episode that often our decisions are shaken by various attachments and emotional reasons . Lord Krishna whom we consider as the ultimate  power, in his wisdom, advises Arjuna to follow the path of his duty.

To me it appears that it gives us a lesson – that of sticking to our duty or following our goals under any circumstances.

So we learned from this chapter the following management principles

  1. That no crises should our shake the leader. He/she must be fully in control and dispassionately assess every situation, and work out solutions.
  2. Some partial damage may take place, whenever there is a conflict. So we must take it as a part of life and face it courageously.
  3. Principles are to be given a higher consideration than our personal relationships.
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Chapter 18

Arjuna uvacha
Sannyasasya mahabaho tattvam icchami veditum
Tyagasya cha hrsikesa prthak kesinisudana

Arjun said , to lord Krishna “Mahabaho, omnipresent, Vasudev, I want to understand the difference between sanyas and Tyag (remmciation).


Sri bhagavan uvacha
Kamyanam karmanam nyasam sannyasam kavayo viduh
Sarva-karma-phala-tyagam prahus tyagam vichaksanah

Shri Bhagwan said, “Many a scholars consider giving up all such worth actione which are performed with desire to acquire worldly gifts as ‘Sanyas’. But other though ful ones consider giving up all desire to aquire any thing in return for the worthy action is true Tyag.


Tyajyam dosavad ity eke karma prahur manisinah
Yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam iti chapare

Many scholars consider that all acions are blemished with one or he other fault and therefore should be given up. But there are others who say that yajna, donation and tapa are such duties of men which should never be given up.


Nischayam srnu me tatra tyage Bharata-sattama
Tyago hi purusa-vyaghra tri-vidhah samprakirtitah

Arjun, between Sanyas and Tyag first you try to understand my views on tyag. Tyag indeed is of three categovies i.e. Satvik, Rajas and Tamas.


Yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam karyam eva tat
Yajno danam tapas chaiva pavanani manisinam

Yajna, donation and tapa, these actions should never be given up. Instead, these must always be performed because these are the actions which truly purify wise people.


Etany api tu karmani sangam tyaktva phalani cha
Kartavyaniti me partha nischitam matam uttamam

Therefore Parth (Arjun) these actions i.e. Yajna, donation and tapa and all other worthy actions and duties must be performed without attachment and without desiring the fruit of the labour.


Niyatasya tu sannyasah karmano nopapadyate
Mohat tasya parityagas tamasah parikirtitah

Unworthy actions must be abandoned altogether. But the duty of man and must not be given up. If must be performed. But attachment and expectation of the result must be given up. Tyag or known as Tamas ‘tyag’.


Duhkham ity eva yat karma kaya-klesa-bhayat tyajet
Sa krtva rajasam tyagam naiva tyaga-phalam labhet

All actions are full of misery and due to fear of difficulties involved in performance of one’s own duty is known as ‘Rajas’ ‘tyag’. This kind of tyag does not bring about any benefit.


Karyam ity eva yat karma niyatam kriyate rjuna
Sangam tyaktva phalam chaiva sa tyagah sattviko matah

The actions which are prescribed by the shastras (holy scriptures) to a person, if performed without attachment and without expectation of any results are to be considered as true ‘Satvik’ tyag.


Na dvesty akusalam karma kusale nanusajjate
Tyagi sattva-samavisto medhavi chinna-samsayah

The person who does not despise actions as his duty even if it is not enviable and doesnot get attached to the great and likeable actions if the same fall under his duty is, in fact, a true tyagi (one who renunciates).


Na hi deha-bhrta sakyam tyaktum karmany asesatah
Yas tu karma-phala-tyagi sa tyagity abhidhiyate

Because it is not possible for anyone to altogether in reality give up all body related actions. Therefore the person who gives up the fruit of his actions only must be considered as a renunciator.


Anistam istam misram cha tri-vidham karmanah phalam
Bhavaty atyaginam pretya na tu sannyasinam kvachit

The person who does not renunciate but desires the results of his actions does get good or had or mixed result of his action after his death. But the person who renunciates the fruits of his action does not have to suffer any consequence of his actions at anytime at all.


Panchaitani maha-baho karanani nibodha me
Sankhye krtante proktani siddhaye sarva-karmanam

Mahabaho (Opraveman) the completion of all action, five possible reasons have been explained in ‘Sankhya Shastra’. I shall explain to you these in detail. You must carefully understand.


Adhisthanam tatha karta karanam cha prthag-vidham
Vividhas cha prthak chesta daivam chaivatra panchamam

In the context at fulfillment of the duties, there are file rot of the origin of action. The place of action, the motive of action and the doer (who carries out the action) and the different implements – humanly organs senses etc. – with which the action is carried out and different kinds of effort for the action and the fifth one is “Devaya”?


Sarira-vanmanobhir yat karma prarabhate narah
Nyayyam va viparitam va panchaite tasya hetavah

Whatever action is performed by a person with mind, speech or body whether in accordance with the shastras or against the shastras the same action occurs due to all the aforesaid five reasons.


Tatraivam sati kartaram atmanam kevalam tu yah
Pasyaty akrta-buddhitvan na sa pasyati durmatih

Even then ordinary human beings, due to his impure wisdom consider the ‘pure soul’ alone is the doer of the action. Or in other words he consider that the soul is only responsible for the action. In fact such a man with foul wisdom does not understand, things correctly.


Yasya nahankrto bhavo buddhir yasya na lipyate
Hatvapi sa imal lokan na hanti na nibadhyate

The person who is free from the feeling that ‘I am the doer’ and whose intellect does not it attached or afflicted by the worldly things; such a person even if he kills all living beings because neither he is a killer no does he gets afflicted by any sin.


Jnanam jneyam parijnata tri-vidha karma-codana
Karanam karma karteti tri-vidhah karma sangrahah

The person who understands, the faculty of understanding and the content of understanding; these are three motivating fetors of any action. The doer the implements with which the action is performed and the actual action; these are three types of constituents of the action.


Jnanam karma cha karta cha tridhaiva guna-bhedatah Prochyate guna-sankhyane yathavach chrnu tany api

 In the scriptures relating to description of ‘Gunas’, there are three different categories each of ‘Karta’ (Doer), ‘Karma’ (action) or Gyan (wisdom).  I shall explain these to you, so listen carefully.


 Sarva-bhutesu yenaikam bhavam avyayam iksate
Avibhaktam vibhaktesu taj jnanam viddhi sattvikam

 The wisdom which enables one to identify the omnipresent indivisible almighty among all beings; such a wisdom is ‘satwic’ wisdom.


 Prthaktvena tu yaj jnanam nana-bhavan-prthage-vidhan
Vetti sarvesu bhutesu taj jnanam viddhi rajasam

 But the wisdom which gives different identification to all beings and makes one realise different existence of these beings should be considered as ‘Rajas’ wisdom.


 Yat tu krtsnavad ekasmin karye saktam ahaitukam
Atattvarthavad alpam cha tat tamasam udahrtam

 On the other hand, the wisdom which doesnot give clear perceptions and is altogether attached to the body; such a confused wisdom should be considered as ‘tamas’.


 Niyatam sanga-rahitam araga-dvesatah krtam
Aphala-prepsuna karma yat tat sattvikam uchyate

 The action which is carried out according to the scriptures and is free from the conceit or egotism and is carried out without desiring the fruit of action and is also free from attachment, is called Satvik action.


 Yat tu kamepsuna karma sahankarena va punah
Kriyate bahulayasam tad rajasam udahrtam

 But the action which involves enormous efforts and is performed by those who seek worldly pleasures or those full of arrogance is called ‘Rajas’ karma (action)


 Anubandham ksayam himsam anapeksya cha paurusam
Mohad arabhyate karma yat tat tamasam uchyate

 But the action which is performed without thinking about the result, loss or violence or the ability and is carried out of ignorance is called ‘tamas’ karma (action).


 Mukta-sango nahamvadi dhrty-utsaha-samanvitah Siddhy-asiddhyor nirvikarah karta sattvika uchyate

 The doer or ‘Karta’ is unattached, and is not arrogant, but is full of patience and enthusiasm at the same time who is not affected by the success or failure of the action i.e. neither becomes happy on success nor is sad due to failure is called ‘Satvik’ karta (doer)


 Ragi karma-phala-prepsur lubdho himsatmako suchih
Harsa-sokanvitah karta rajasah parikirtitah

 The doer (karta) who remains attached and is desirous of the fruits of the action others and is either very sad or very happy is known as ‘rajas’ karta (doer).


 Ayuktah prakrtah stabdhah satho naiskrtiko lasah
Visadi dirgha-sutri cha karta tamasa uchyate

 But the doer who is unworthy uneducated, arrogant, wicked, lazy and a procastrinator is called ‘tamas’ karta (doer)


 Buddher bhedam dhrtes chaiva gunatas tri-vidham srnu
Prochyamanam asesena prthaktvena dhananjaya

 Besides, Arjun, now I shall explain to you three categories each of, wisdom / intellect and ‘dhriti’—- steadfastness of mind in detail.


 Pravrttim cha nivrttim cha karyakarye bhayabhaye
Bandham moksam cha ya vetti buddhih sa partha sattviki

 Parth the intellect which recognised and understand pravritimarg (a person who conducts himself for the benefit of the society just like Raja Janak even living the regular worldly life is know to follow pravritimarg) and nivritimarg (giving up the worldly attachment and remaining one with the Almighty and detaching oneself completely from the worldly life is known as nivritimarg) and duty and forbidden actions, fear and fearlessness and attachment and salvation is known as satviki intellect


 Yaya dharmam adharmam cha karyam chakaryam eva cha
Ayathavat prajanati buddhih sa partha rajasi

 Parth, the intellect which fails to distinguish between duty and forbidden action, religion and atheism is known to be ‘Rajas’ intellect.


 Adharmam dharmam iti ya manyate tamasavrta
Sarvarthan viparitams cha buddhih sa partha tamasi

 And, Arjun the intellect which considers atheism as religion and likewise follows all wrong paths should be considered as tamas intellect.


 Dhrtya yaya dharayate manah pranendriya-kriyah
Yogenavyabhicharinya dhrtih sa partha sattviki

 Prithaputra (son of Pritha) anyone’s conviction which is the result of pure meditation and is free from all worldly attachment is called satvik conviction


 Yaya tu dharma-kamarthan dhrtya dharayate rjuna
Prasangena phalakanksi dhrtih sa partha rajasi

 And the person who desires the fruits of his efforts and develops a conviction to carry out religious economic and physical activity is Rajsi conviction.


 Yaya svapnam bhayam sokam visadam madam eva cha
Na vimunchati durmedha dhrtih sa partha tamasi

 But the person with an impure (dusht) mind due to his foul conviction clings to laziness, worry, fear and sorrow; his conviction is ‘Tamas’


 Sukham tv idanim tri-vidham srnu me bharatarsabha
Abhyasad ramate yatra duhkhantam cha nigacchati

 Arjun, now, I shall describe to you three variants of happiness.  The happiness which is attained through meditation, devotional songs, and help and assistant to others is Satvik happiness.


 Yat tad agre visam iva pariname mrtopamam
Tat sukham sattvikam proktam atma-buddhi-prasada-jam

 Such a happiness in the beginning appears troublesome difficult to accept as if it were poison; but the result if which is like Amrit (the heavenly rector) is called Satvik happiness.


 Visayendriya-samyogad yat tad agre mrtopamam
Pariname visam iva tat sukham rajasam smrtam

 But happiness which is derived due to physical pleasures though appears like nectar during enjoyment but in the end is like a poison; such happiness is known to be ‘Rajasi’


 Yad agre chanubandhe cha sukham mohanam atmanah
Nidralasya-pramadottham tat tamasam udahrtam

 But the happiness which is derived due to laziness, inaction, sleep and other such activities that promote delusion of the pure mind is known as ‘Tamsi’ happiness.


 Na tad asti prthivyam va divi devesu va punah
Sattvam prakrti-jair muktam yad ebhih syat tribhir gunaih

 And Arjun, in this world or the heaven or even among demigods; there is not one being who is not affected by these three gunas attributes i.e. Satvik Rajas or tamas.


 Brahmana-ksatriya-visam sudranam cha parantapa Karmani pravibhaktani svabhava-prabhavair gunaih

 Therefore all the activities of Brahmins, Kshtriyas, Vaishy as and Sudras are also divided into three different categories according their gunas.


 Samo damas tapah saucam ksantir arjavam eva cha
Jnanam vijnanam astikyam brahma-karma svabhava-jam

 Control of mind and body, purity within and without, accepting difficulties on account of religion, the ability to pardon others and simplicity of mind, senses and body those are natural activities of a Brahmin.


 Sauryam tejo dhrtir daksyam yuddhe chapy apalayanam
Danam isvara-bhavas cha ksatram karma svabhava-jam

 Valour, spleen dour, patience, courage and being clever and qualities of leadership, will and ability to donate and the ability to rule with consideration to every ones wellness these are all natural qualities or activities of Kshtriyas.


 Krsi-goraksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava-jam
Paricharyatmakam karma sudrasyapi svabhava-jam

 And agriculture, cattle raising, and honest business these are natural activities of Vaishayas.  And serving others are the natural activities of sudres.


 Sve sve karmany abhiratah samsiddhim labhate narah
Svakarma-niratah siddhim yatha vindati tach chrnu

 In this way a person following his natural duty undoubtedly attains realisation to you the procedure by which following his own duty realises  Almighty.


 Yatah pravrttir bhutanam yena sarvam idam tatam
Svakarmana tam abhyarchya siddhim vindati manavah

 Arjun, the Almighty who has created all beings, when worshipped through devotionally carrying out one’s own natural duties – is a means to achieve paramsidhi.


 Sreyan sva-dharmo vigunah para-dharmat svanusthitat
Svabhava-niyatam karma kurvan napnoti kilbisam

 Therefore it is better to follow one’s own activity if even when devoid of all niceties is than to follow somebody else’s duty / activity.


 Saha-jam karma Kaunteya sa-dosam api na tyajet
Sarvarambha hi dosena dhumenagnir ivavrtah

 Therefore, Arjune, one should not give up one’s own natural duty even if it reflects blemishes.  In fact all activities do carry with them some blemishes like smoke with fire.


 Asakta-buddhih sarvatra jitatma vigata-sprhah
Naiskarmya-siddhim paramam sannyasenadhigacchati

 Besides, Arjun, a person who is unattached and has control over his mind body and senses can realise god through Sankhyayog and through detachment.


 Siddhim prapto yatha brahma tathapnoti nibodha me
Samasenaiva kaunteya nistha jnanasya ya para

 Therefore Kuntiputra (son of Kunti) I explain to you how practitioner of sankhya yoga realises Brahman and I shall in short also explain the definition of ‘Prime Truth’


 Buddhya visuddhaya yukto dhrtyatmanam niyamya cha
Sabdadin visayams tyaktva raga-dvesau vyudasya cha

Vivikta-sevi laghv-asi yata-vak-kaya-manasah
Dhyana-yoga-paro nityam vairagyam samupasritah

 Arjun, the person with a pure mind peace loving and quiet and who eats only as much as is necessary and who has fall control over his mind speech and body.  And who has adopted detachment, taken to meditation and with his satvik conviction controlling his mind fully should destroy the elements of envy, jealously and attachment within him.


 Ahankaram balam darpam kamam krodham parigraham
Vimuchya nirmamah santo brahma-bhuyaya kalpate

 Further he gets rid of pride, arrogance, bust, anger and desire to accumulate wordily possessions; and with inner and outer peace; he becomes worthy of self realisation  and prime siddhi.


 Brahma-bhutah prasannatma na sochati na kanksati
Samah sarvesu bhutesu mad-bhaktim labhate param

 He realises the Almighty and assumes a state where neither he laments for any lost object nor desire any worldly object.  Instead having uniform attitude towards all beings and things becomes deeply unbolted in devotion toward, me.


 Bhaktya man abhijanati yavan yas chasmi tattvatah
Tato mam tattvato jnatva visate tad-anantaram

 It is only ;with pure devotion that my devotee is able to comprehend what I am and my influence and in fact becomes one with my limitless form.  Thereafter in his eyes there remains nothing else but Almighty.


 Sarva-karmany api sada kurvano mad-vyapasrayah
Mat-prasadad avapnoti sasvatam padam avyayam

 The selfless yogi who carries on with his duty without expectation undoubtedly realises ME the indestructible omnipresent and attains the position of prime importance with my grace.


 Chetasa sarva-karmani mayi sannyasya mat-parah
Buddhi-yogam upasritya macchittah satatam bhava

 Therefore, Arjun, you dedicate all your efforts from the core of your heart to ME.  Get involved in ME practicing selfless performance of your duties that you become fully conscious of my presence.


 Mach-chittah sarva-durgani mat-prasadat tarisyasi
Atha chet tvam ahankaran na srosyasi vinanksyasi

 In this manner if you realise me, I shall grant you freedom from the cycle of birth and death and all other such difficulties.  However if out of your arrogance, you choose not to pay need to my words, you will loose your track of glory.  In fact you will be destroyed.


 Yad ahankaram asritya na yotsya iti manyase
Mithyaisa vyavasayas te prakrtis tvam niyoksyati

 And if you consider that you may decide not to fight it is only your foolish thought.  Your natural attributes of being a Kshtriya will automatically force you to fight.


 Svabhava-jena Kaunteya nibaddhah svena karmana
Kartum necchasi yan mohat karisyasy avaso pi tat

 Arjun, the duty which you don’t want to perform because of your attachment to your relatives, you will surely carry out because of your in built inherent nature.


 Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese rjuna tisthati
Bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya

 Because, Arjun, the Omnipresent  Almighty through his unique Maya makes all beings wander according to their own actions.  And the Almighty is always present in their hearts.


 Tam eva saranam gaccha sarva-bhavena bharata
Tat prasadat param santim sthanam prapsyasi sasvatam

 There fore Bharat (another name for Arjun) submit yourself to the almighty giving up all your pride, fear, shame and attachment.  You will certainly be at peace with His Grace.


 Iti te jnanam akhyatam guhyad guhyataram maya
Vimrsyaitad asesena yathecchasi tatha kuru


In fact I have explained to you most secret knowledge.  Now you must give it all your serious thought.  And thereafter decide whatever you want to do according to your own desire.


 Sarva-guhyatamam bhuyah srnu me paramam vachah
isto si me drdham iti tato vaksyami te hitam

 Haring said this all and not getting any reply from Arjun, the Lord Almighty once again said .  I shall once again repeat secret knowledge of all secrets for your benefit because you are very dear to me.


 Manmana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru
Mam evaisyasi satyam te pratijane priyo si me

 Arjun, you must develop full faith in Me the Almighty and worship me without any selfish motive.  Consider constantly all my faculties, generosity.  Kindheartedness, pleasant nature, seriousness and sweetness.  These will help you to fix your mind in Me and eventually you will become a part and parcel of my own SELF.


 Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja
Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami ma suchah

 Therefore give up your dependence on various scriptures, principles and come to my grace.  I shall rid you of all your blemishes, faults and sins.


 Idam te natapaskaya nabhaktaya kadachana
Na chasusrusave vachyam na cha mam yo bhyasuyati

 Whatever secret knowledge message of Gita – I have imparted to you for your benefit; you should never share with a person who is not keen to acquire or these who do not belief  in God the Almighty.  But devotees who desire to know are worthy of sharing this secret knowledge; so you can explain the same to those devotees.


 Ya idam paramam guhyam mad-bhaktesv abhidhasyati
Bhaktim mayi param krtva mam evaisyaty asamsayah

 Because whoever, out of devotion and duty towards ME, will share this deep knowledge of Gila without selfish motive and respectfully; he will undoubted merge with ME the Almighty.


 Na cha tasman manusyesu kaschin me priya-krttamah
Bhavita na cha me tasmad anyah priyataro bhuvi

 There is no one more dear to me than the persons who respectfully propagates my message, nor will there be anyone in future.


 Adhyesyate cha ya imam dharmyam samvadam avayoh
Jnana-yajnena tenaham istah syam iti me matih

 And Arjun whoever will read our this discussion respectfully or study if daily will be, in fact, performing my ‘gyan yojna’ worship which I will always accept.


 Sraddhavan anasuyas cha srnuyad api yo narah
So pi muktah subhal likan prapnuyat punya-karmanam

 Besides the one who is free from faults and will just listen to these wise words of knowledge respectfully will be rid of all sins.


 Kacchid etach chrutam partha tvayaikagrena chetasa
Kacchid ajnana-sammohah pranastas te dhananjaya

 Explaining the importance of the message of Gita in this manwher to Arjun, Lord Krishna asked Parth have you listened to my talk carefully?  And Dhananjay has your will affection born out of ignorance vanished?


 Arjuna uvacha
Nasto mohah smrtir labdha tvat prasadan mayachyuta
Sthito smi gata-sandehah karisye vachanam tava

When Lord Almighty put these questions to Arjun, the latter replied, Achyut (____________) with your grace all my vile affections are completely destroyed.  All my doubts are now removed.  Therefore, now, I shall obey your orders.


 Sanjaya uvacha
Ity aham vasudevasya parthasya cha mahatmanah
Samvadam imam asrausam adbhutam roma-harsanam

 Thereafter Sanjay said to Dhritrashtra, Rajan, I have listened in detail this wonderful deep dialogue between Lord Vasudev and noble Arjun.


 Vyasa-prasadach chrutavan etad guhyam aham param
Yogam yogesvarat krsnat saksat kathayatah svayam

 By grace of Vyas ji who granted me devine sight with which I could see the Lord Krishna himself imparting the entire deep and secret knowledge.


 Rajan samsmrtya samsmrtya samvadam imam adbhutam
Kesavarjunayoh punyam hrsyami cha muhur muhuh

 Rajan, I repeatedly remember in my mind the unique, mysterious and benevolent dialogue and joy runs through my mind and body


 Tach cha samsmrtya samsmrtya rupam atyadbhutam hareh
Vismayo me mahan Rajan hrsyami cha punah punah

And Rajan recalling the wonderful form of Shri Hari, Lord Krishna I am becoming overjoyed.


 Yatra yogesvarah Krushno yatra partho dhanur-dharah
Tatra srir vijayo bhutir dhruva nitir matir mama

Rajan, what else can I describe?  But I must say the side where the great Lord Almighty Shri Krishna and (gandivadhnushdhari) Arjun are there the final victory belongs to them.


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chapter 17

Sri bhagavan uvacha
Ye sastra-vidhim utsrjya yajante sraddhayanvitah
Tesam nistha tu ka Krushna sattvam aho rajas tamah

Arjun said “Krinshna, the person who ignores the procedure laid down in shaslras but is full of devotion and worships dewigods; how will you term his worship – Satviki, Rajasi or Tamasi?


Sri bhagavan uvacha
Tri-vidha bhavati sraddha dehinam sa svabhava-ja
Sattviki rajast caiva tamasi cheti tam srnu

Lord Krishna replied, “Devotion that arises out of one’s own nature and is devoid of procedural attributes, as mentioned in shastras can be any one of the three types – Salviki, Rajasi or Tomasi. I shall explain to you these.


Sattvanurupa sarvasya sraddha bhavati bharata
Sraddhamayo yam puruso yo yach chraddhah as eva sah

Bharat (Arjun) devotion of a person depends on his/her intrinsic nature. A devotional person is as good or bad as is his devotion.


Yajante sattvika devan yaksa-raksamsi rajasah
Pretan bhuta-ganams chanye yajante tamasa janah

Satvik men worship Devas gods, Rajas worship demi-gods or demons. And Tamas men worship ghosts and evil spirits.


Asastra vihitam ghoram tapyante ye tapo janah
Dambhahankara-samyuktah kama-raga-balanvitah

The person who ignores the holy scripture; devises his own imaginary form of tapa. He is full of attachment, desire and pride of his own power.


Karsayantah sarira-stham bhuta-gramam achetasah
Mam chaivantah sarira-stham tan viddhy asura-nischayan

Those who slight their body and the soul which in fact is my own extension, you must consider them to bear demonish nature.


Aharastvapi sarvasya tri-vidho bhavati priyah
Yajnas tapas tatha danam tesam bhedam imam srnu

Everyone enjoys such food as is compatible with his/her nature. Likewise yajna, donations and devotional worship are also of three types each. I shall explain to you the different attributes of all these.


Ayuh sattva-balarogya-sukha-priti-vivardhanah
Rasyah snigdhah sthird hrdya aharah sattvika-priyah

The foods which are stable, promote health, intellect, cheer and are juicy and buttery, such foods are loved by Satvik people.


Ahara rajasasyesta duhkha-sokamaya-pradah

Food, which are Bitter, Sour, Salty, very hot that cause burning sensation and are responsible for anxiety, sorrow and decease are liked by Rajasi people.


Yata-yamam gata-rasam puti paryusitam cha yat
Ucchistam api chamedhyam bhojanam tamasa-priyam

And meals which are halfcocked, dry, emits foul odoar and are impure; such meals are preferred by Tamas people.


Aphalakanksibhir yajno vidhi-drsto ya ijyate
Yastavyam eveti manah samadhaya sa sattvikah

Yajna which is performed as per procedure and considering that it is one’s duty to perform yajna should be considered as Satvik Yajna.


Abhisandhaya tu phalam dambhartham api chaiva yat
Ijyate bharata-srestha tam yajnam viddhi rajasam

But, yajna which is performed to show off with arrogance and desiring the results should be considered as Rajasi Yajna.


Vidhi-hinam asrstannam mantra-hinam adakshinam
Sraddha-virahitam yajnam tamasam parichaksate

And ignoring all holy procedures without donating food, without chanting mantras and devoid of devotion or dakshina; such a yajna is of tamas category.


Deva-dvija-guru-prajna-pujanam saucham arjavam
Brahma-charyam ahimsa cha sariram tapa uchyate

Worshiping gods, Brahmins, guru and saints of wisdom, Purity, simplicity avoidance of sex and violence, this is known as body – related ‘tapa’.


Anudvega-karam vakyam satyam priya-hitam cha yat
Svadhyayabhyasanam chaiva vanmayam tapa uchyate

Speech that does not hurt and is lovable and is also appropriate and helpful, reading scripture and repeating God’s name; these known as the tapa of speech.


Manah-prasadah saumyatvam maunam atma-vinigrahah
Bhava-samsuddhir ity etat tapo manasam uchyate

Delightful mind, peaceful nature and one inclined to remember God, and purity of thoughts and mental processes; these refer to mind related ‘tapa’.


Sraddhaya paraya taptam tapas tat tri-vidham naraih
Aphalakanksibhir yuktaih sattvikam parichaksate

People practicing ‘yoga’ who do not desire results but carry out the aforesaid three kinds of tapa; their tapa is known as satvik tapa.


Satkara-mana-pujartham tapo dambhena chaiva yat
Kriyate tad iha proktam rajasam chalam adhruvam

But ‘tapa’ which is carried out for honour, pride, worship or for any other selfish motive and the tapa which is of transitory results is known as Rajas tapa.


Mudha-grahenatmanah yat pidaya kriyate tapah
Parasyotsadanartham va tat tamasam udahrtam

And tapa which is performed foolishly and is hurting to the mind, body, speech and aims at inconvenience or hurting others is known as tamas tapa.


Datavyam iti yad danam diyate nupakarine
Dese kale cha patre cha tad danam sattvikam smrtam

Donation is one’s duty and as such any donation that is given without expectation and feeling of generosity that you are helping others is called satvik donation.


Yat tu pratyupakarartham phalam uddisya va punah
Diyate cha pariklistam tad danam rajasam smrtam

But the donation which is made with consideration and motive of pride, honour and desire of heaven, such a donation should be considered ‘Rajas’.


Adesa-kale yad danam apatrebhyas cha diyate
Asatkrtam avajnatam tat tamasam udahrtam

And the donation which is made without respect or with disdain and is given to unworthy people or for unworthy causes is known as tamas donation.


Om-tat-sad iti nirdeso brahmanas tri-vidhah smrtah
Brahmanas tena vedas cha yajnas cha vihitah pura

‘Om’, ‘tata’, ‘sata’, these three words donote the names of the omnipresent, ‘Brahma’. Brahma alone has created Brahmins, Vedas and yajna etc.


Tasmad om ity udahrtya yajna-dana-tapah-kriyah
Pravartante vidhanoktah satatam brahma-vadinam

Therefore all worthy actions like yajna donation or tapa are initiated by righteous people by pronouncing ‘Om’. ‘Om’ is always chanted before beginning yajna, tapa or at the time of donation.


Tad ity anabhisandhaya phalam yajna-tapah-kriyah
Dana-kriyas cha vividhah kriyante moksa-kanksibhih

Tata word denotes the name of the Almighty to whom every thing belongs. Therefore selfless righteous people perform holy duties like yajna, tapa and donation while chanting tata.


Sad-bhave sadhu-bhave cha sad ity etat prayujyate
Prasaste karmani tatha ach-chabdah partha yujyate

Sata, the name of God is repeated with devotion and purity and is also use while performing deserving duties.


Yajne tapasi dane cha sthitih sad iti chochyate
Karma chaiva tad-arthiyam sad ity evabhidhiyate

The intent behind yajna, tapa and the donation is also known as Sata, and the duties carried out for the Almighty is also known as Sata.


Asraddhaya hutam dattam tapas taptam krtam cha yat
Asad ity uchyate partha na cha tat pretya no iha

Arjun any yajna, tapa or donation if performed without devotion and respect and also other Loorthy actions if these are devoid of devotion are all known as ‘Asata’. Therefore neither these are useful in this life nor the next.


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Chapter 16

Sri bhagavan uvaca

Abhayam sattva-samsuddhir jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih

    Danam damas ca yajnas ca svadhyayas tapa arjavam

 The Lord Almighty said, “Always free from fear, with complete purity of mind, pursuit of devine  knowledge with impeccable decision, Satvic donations complete control over the senses, worship of Gurujan, gods and the Almighty, following the path of duty, study of holy scriptures and the vedas, simplicity  of the senses, body and the mind, forbearance of difficulties to carry out one’s duties.



       Ahimsa satyam akrodhas tyagah santir apaisunam

Daya bhutesv aloluptvam mardavam hrir acapalam

 Not to hurt anyone with mind, speech or body, use of apt and lovable language, not to be angry even with those who insult, lack of the ego in the deeds that one does, stability of  mind or the lack of waywardness, not to criticise anyone, and not to have any attachment even while being engaged in enjoyment at senses, unselfish kindness towards all beings, delicacy, shying from acting against the holy scriptures or the community and lack of futile efforts.


         Tejah ksama dhrtih saucam adroho natimanita

Bhavanti sampadam daivim abhijatasya bharata

 Latent devine power to impress, forgiveness Patience, lack at enmity  towards anyone, lack of ego of goodness in one’s own self – Arjun all these qualities belong to men who are born of Devi Sampada.


 Dambho darpo bhimanas ca krodhah parusyam eva ca

   Ajnanam cabhijatasya partha sampadam asurim

 Parth, Arrogance, Hypocracy, Anger, malevolence malice and ignorance –  All these are indications of people born of Asuri Sampada.


 Daivi sampad vimoksaya nibandhayasuri mata

Ma sucah sampadam daivim abhijato si pandava

 Devi Sampada is known for freedom and asuri sampada is known for the bondage.  Therefore, Arjun, you must not worry.  You are born of Devi Sampada.


 Dvau bhuta-sargau loke smin daiva asura eva ca

        Daivo vistarasah prokta asuram partha me srnu

 Arjun, in this universe, there are only two kinds of people.  Of Devi sampada nature and that of asuri sampada.  Between these two I have described in detail the virtues of those belonging to Devi Sampada.  Now you must listen to the attenbutes  of people belonging to asuri sampada.


 Pravrttim ca nivrttim ca jana na vidur asurah

          Na saucam napi cacaro na satyam tesu vidyate

 People  of demonish nature do not understand ‘________’ or ‘Nivriti’.  Therefore neither they have outward or inward purity, nor noble action nor do they speak the truth.


Asatyam apratistham te jagad ahur anisvaram

Aparaspara-sambhutam kim anyat kama-haitukam

 These asuri nature people say that this world is without any God always untrue and people are born of the union of male and female or the sex act alone.  There no other higher cause.


 Etam drstim avastabhya nastatmano lap-buddhayah

     Prabhavanty ugra-karmanah ksayaya jagato hitah

 Adopting this false knowledge and belief, who have ruined their true nature and whose intelligence is limited and who want to insult others; Such people engage in their sinful deeds alone and are responsible for the destruction of this moth earth.


 Kamam asritya duspuram dambha-mana-madanvitah

   Mohad grhitvasad-grahan pravartante suci-vratah

 These people, full arrogance, _______, and intoxication adopt desires which are insatiable and follow the faulty principles and wantonly move in this world waywardly.


 Cintam aparimeyam ca pralayantam upasritah

         Kamopabhoga-parama etavad iti niscitah

 And keeping countless worries till the end, and remaining fully absorbed in the worldly pleasures and considering these pleasures alone constitute happiness they only follow the dubious path.


 Asa-pasa-satair baddhah kama-krodha-parayanah

      Ihante kama-bhogartham anyayenartha-sancayan

 The people are overwhelmed with hundreds of futile hopes and endeavor to amass wealth in order to enjoy these pleasures of life through dubious and unjust means.


 Idam adya maya labdham imam prapsye manoratham

   Idam astidam api me bhavisyati punar dhanam

They think today I have achieved one aim and next I shall gain another desire.  I have so much wealth and shall gather much more.


       Asau maya hatah satrur hanisye caparan api

Isvaro ham aham bhogi siddho ham balavan sukhi

 I have finished one of my enemies, I will now finish others.  I am all powerful and worthy of all comforts and pleasures of the world.  I am an achiever, a powerful person and very happy.


 Adhyo bhijanavan asmi ko nyo sti sadrso maya

          Yaksye dasyami modisya ity ajnana-vimohitah


         Aneka-citta-vibhranta moha-jala-samavrtah

Prasaktah kama-bhogesu patanti nnarake sucau

 I am rich and I have large family.  There is no one like me.  I shall perform yojna, and be a big doner and will have ample celebrations.  In this manner overcome with utter ignorance and nurturing their own dubious beliefs and aspiring always for the material pleasure these demonlike human being eventually get into the hell.


 Atma-sambhavitah stabdha dhana-mana-madanvitah

   Yajante nama-yajnais te dambhenavidhi-purvakam

 These arrogant and proud people consider themselves noble and intoxicated by the wealth and sham respect in the society carry out the yojna, give donations only for name sake without realising the  essence of these noble deeds.


 Ahankaram balam darpam kamam krodham ca samsritah

           Mam atma-para-dehesu pradvisanto bhyasuyakah

 They, full of ego, arrogance, pride, desire and anger always criticise others and desregard  Me who is always present within others as much as their own selves.


 Tan aham dvisatah kruran samsaresu naradhaman

      Ksipamy ajasram asubhan asurisv eva yonisu

 I ensure that these simmers and jealous demouish people are repeatedly sent to this world in ‘Asuri Yoni’ alone.


 Asurim yonim apanna mudha janmani janmani

Mam aprapyaiva kaunnteya tato yanty adhamam gatim

 Arjun these ignorant people do not attain Me but repeatedly take birth inn degenerated families and thereafter secure for themselves still lower places or get into the hell.


Tri-vidham narakasyedam dvaram nasanam atmanah

Kamah krodhas tatha lobhas tasmad etat trayam tyajet

___________ and pursuing carnal and other vicious desires, greed and anger; the three known tickets to hell which undoubtedly kill the soul.  These are undoubtedly responsible for the degeneration of ones soul and must be given up.


 Etair vimuktah kaunteya tamo-dvarais tribhir narah

    Acaraty atmanah sreyas tato yato param gatim

 Arjun, the person who has given up these three ill-attriluited, undoubtedly carries on with his progressive duties.  And through this he achieves better abodes and even attains Me.


Yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya vartate kama-karatah

Na sa siddhim avapnoti na sukham na param gatim

 The person who abandons the laws laid in holy scriptures and follows the dictates of his own heart neither achieve anything significant nor he reaches better abodes nor be is able to secure happiness.


 Tasmac chastram pramanam te karyakarya-vyavasthitau

 Jnatva sastra-vidhanoktam karma kartum iharhasi

 Therefore only holy scripture can guide you as to true duties and don’ts.  Therefore, understanding this clearly and whole heatedly, you must follow the path of your duties as laid down in the holy scriptures.


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Chapter 15

             Sri bhagavan uvaca

Urdhva-mulam adhah-sakham asvattham prahur avyayam

            Chandamsi yasya parnani yas tam veda sa veda-vit

 The Lord Almighty said, “The person, who understands the universe which is like a holy Peepal tree with the supreme soul as its roots and Brahma rup as its main  hranches and which is known as indestructible and with the vedas as its leaves, that person in fact understands the meaning of the vedas.


Adhas cordhvam prasrtas tasya sakha

     guna-pravrddha visaya-pravalah

    Adhas ca mulany anusantatani

    Karmanubandhinni manusya-loke

 The enormous branches of the universal holy tree coming out of ‘Kapolo’ of the human perceptions and the human experience through the senses watered by the tree guna and manifested in the human beings, deities and the demons are ever expanding and pervade the entire universe.  And the miniscule roots in the form of human ego, affection and the longing and desire to are pervading below and above in the entire universe.


 Na rupam asyeha tathopalabhyate

        nanto na cadir na ca sampratistha

       Asvattham enam suvirudha-mulam

       asanga-sastrenna drdhena chittva

This world in the form of the holy tree is difficult to even imagine by the human mind. Because the form of this tree whether has a beginning nor an end.  Nor the form itself remains fixed or the same.  Therefore one should cat this tree full of pride, affection attachment and desire with total freedom from worldly desires and attachments.



        Tatah padam tat parimargitavyam

        yasmin gata na nivartanti bhuyah

Tam eva cadyam purusam prapadye

        yatah pravrttih prasrta purani

 Thereafter one must try to search wholeheartedly the Lord Almighty who embraces all those who earnestly desire to reach him and these seekers once merged do not come back.  One should have firm faith in Him the Almighty and consider onself to have taken refuge, and should remember Him again and again.



            Nirmana-moha jita-sanga-dosa

            adhyatma-nitya vinivrtta-kamah

dvandvair vimuktah sukha-duhkha-samjnair

           gacchanty amudhah padam avyayam tat

 The person who doesnot hanker  after false dignity and who has acquired the devine  knowledge to shed off the ignorance and is no longer attached with any material worldly objects, who has killed all his desires; such a knowledgeable person alone achieves the supreme the Almighty.


 Na tad bhasayate suryo na sasanko na pavakah

Yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama

 The Prime Abode where from no one ever returns to this world is self illuminated and no sun or moon or tire can ever illuminate mine Prime Abode.


 Mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah

Manah sasthanindriyani prakrti-sthani karsati

 The soul in this human body is in fact is my own faction.  And the same soul is wooed by the mind and the five senses which are part of this nature.


 Sariram yad avapnoti yac capy utkramatisvarah

        Grhitvaitani samyati vayur gandhan ivasayat

 Just as the aire adopts the smell of  a place and carries with it likewise the soul at the time of leaving a body carries with it the mind and the senses into the new body.


 Srotram caksuh sparsanam ca rasanam ghranam eva ca

 Adhisthaya manas cayam visayan upasevate

 The individual soul in man with the association of mind, tongue, skin and other senses perceives the worldly pleasures and pains.


 Utkramantam sthitam vapi bhunjanam va gunanvitam

   Vimudha nanupasyanti pasyanti jnana-caksusah

 Only knowledgeable and the wise realises and perceives this soul in his body consuming the pleasures and pains embodying all the three gunas.  The ignorant cannot have any such experience.


 Yatanto yoginas cainam pasyanty atmany avasthitam

    Yatanto py akrtatmano nainam pasyanty acetasah

 Yogis who make deliberate efforts too are able to perceive the essence of the soul.  But others who have not purified their minds are not able to perceive even after great efforts.


 Yad aditya-gatam tejo jagad bhasayate khilam

Yac candramasi yac cagnau tat tejo viddhi mamakam

 The glory present in the sun which enlightens the entire world and the one present in the moon in fact is nothing but My own Glory.


 Gam avisya ca bhutani dharayamy aham ojasa

Pusnami causadhih sarvah somo bhutva rasatmakah

 I through my devine powers enter the earth, engulf all being and I am responsible for producing all vegetation and the medicines.


     Aham vaisvanaro bhutva praninnam deham asritah

Pranapana-samayuktah pacamy annam catur-vidham

 I am responsible for the digestion of all foods in the body through combination of devine intelligence and the body’s requirement which are classified in four different ways.



       Sarvasya caham hrdi sannivistho

mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca

      Vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo

      vedanta-krd veda-vid eva caham

 I am present in the minds of all beings since I am omnipresent.  I am responsible for memory, devine wisdom  and discretion that dispels all doubts.  And with the help of the devine vedas I am worthy of being knowing.  In fact I am the does in the spiritual sense and hold entire knowledge of the vedas.


 Dvav imau purusau loke ksaras caksara eva ca

Ksarah sarvani bhutani kutastho ksara ucyate

 In this world there are two types of human beings.  The bodies of all living beings are mortal or destructible.  But the soul of there living creatures is immortal or beyond destruction.


 Uttamah purusas tv anyah paramatmety udahrtah

      Yo loka-trayam avisya bibharty avyaya isvarah

 However, the supreme and the superior to both these two types is responsible for the maintenance and life of all living beings is the Prime Soul or the Lord Almighty.


 Yasmat ksaram atito ham aksarad api cottamah

        Ato smi loke vede ca prathitah purusottamah

 Because I am beyond the mortal body and also beyond the immortal soul, therefore I am know as the Prime Soul or Purushotaman in the holy scriptures the vedas.


Yo mam evam asammudho janati purusottamam

Sa sarva-vid bhajati mam sarva-bhavena bharata

 Bharat (Arjun)  the wise knowledgeable person who realises in essense that I am the Prime Lord ‘Purushotaman’, he always remembers me as such throughout his life.


 Iti guhyatamam sastram idam uktam mayanagha

Etad buddhva buddhiman syat krta-krtyas ca bharata

Arjun, I have told you in this manner the most secret knowledge.  After acquiring this knowledge the wise becomes emancipated or attains salvation.


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